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Au congrès de Vienne, les représentants des nations européennes ont été échaudés par la fuite de l’île d’Elbe. Ils confient la surveillance de l’ex-Empereur aux Anglais qui auront cette phrase singulière : « Napoléon ne pourra plus nuire au repos du Monde »
Napoléon est vaincu, il sait qu’il ne pourra revenir en arrière et prépare donc sa légende pour survivre à travers les siècles. C’est pourquoi Les Etains du Prince vous présentent aujourd’hui le Mémorial, une pièce avec Gourgaud, Montholon et Las Cases qui illustre la volonté de Napoléon de s’inscrire dans l’Histoire.464.00 €
Napoléon, yet very pioneering, has always denigrated military medicine. He said that the war doctors risked on the battlefield " to disturb the movements of his imperial army . » Thus, between 1805 and 1815, one-third of the soldiers of Napoleon died , not by the hands of the enemy , but because of injuries that could not be treated directly . Most of the wounded were left on the battlefield. The minor injuries were transported with « what’s to hand », as shown by Les Etains du Prince.
Baron Pierre -François Percy, witness daily the difficult living conditions during the military campaigns of the Grand Army , convinced Napoleon of the importance of military medicine and transport the wounded. Thus born the Wurst , ancestor of the ambulance, and also a piece of collection of Les Etains du Prince289.90 €
Napoléon présente le code civil à ses ministres dans son bureau de la Malmaison
« Ma vraie gloire n?est pas d?avoir gagné quarante batailles ; Waterloo effacera le souvenir de tant de victoires ; ce que rien n?effacera, ce qui vivra éternellement, c?est mon Code Civil ».
Le 30 Ventôse an XII (21 mars 1804), Napoléon fit adopter par le conseil d?Etat les 36 articles du Code Civil. Connu aussi sous le nom de «Code Napoléon», nombre de ses textes sont encore en vigueur aujourd?hui.
Sous l?Ancien Régime, le droit Romain et le droit Canon constituaient les seules bases
de la juridiction; en 1790, la Constituante rédigea un projet de code de lois civiles
«simples, claires et appropriées à la Constitution». Cette proposition n?eut pas de suite;
à partir de 1800, Cambacérès reprit l?étude d?un Code Civil, aidé de quatre juristes
Tronchet, Portalis, Bigot de Préameneu et Maleville.
Le Général Bonaparte présida 57 des 107 séances du Conseil d?Etat sur le sujet,
traitant «des personnes, des biens et des différentes modifications de la propriété»,
traduisant ainsi l?évolution libérale et individualiste de la société française post-révolutionnaire, ce qui explique son rayonnement au-delà de nos frontières. En 1960, plus de 70 états avait modelé leurs propres lois sur le code Napoléon.
Napoléon a donc réussi à créer, un siècle et demi avant la signature du Traité de Rome
(1957) instaurant la Communauté Economique Européenne et presque deux siècles
avant la signature du Traité de Maastricht (1992), instaurant l?Union Européenne
politique, ce que Victor Hugo suggérait déjà en employant le terme « Etats Unis
d?Europe ». Napoléon, par sa volonté de domination unificatrice, notamment en ce qui concerne le droit, a construit l?Europe du Code Civil, l?Europe Napoléonienne. Ce Code Civil va être le ciment d?une Europe nouvelle qui se dessine sous l?effet du
Les Etains du Prince illustrent par cette scène qui se déroule dans l?univers de travail de Napoléon, l?évènement historique que constitue la naissance du code civil. Ils restituent fidèlement le fauteuil et le bureau en acajou et bronze doré, oeuvres des frères Jacob, ébénistes favoris de l?Empire.
Le Premier Consul présente ce texte majeur à ses fidèles conseillers, le ministre de la police, Fouché, duc d?Otrante, juste rentré en grâce et Talleyrand, grand Chambellan, ministre des relations extérieures.
Le Code Civil, définitif et désormais célèbre volume rouge, figure sur le superbe meuble qu?on peut encore admirer au Musée du Souvenir napoléonien de Rueil-Malmaison.240.90 €
The French Grande Armée under Emperor Napoleon I attacked the Imperial Russian Army of General Mikhail Kutuzov near the village of Borodino, west of the town of Mozhaysk, and eventually captured the main positions on the battlefield, but failed to destroy the Russian army despite heavy losses. About a third of Napoleon's soldiers were killed or wounded; Russian losses was also heavy, but her casualties could be compensated since large forces of militia were already with the Russian Army and replacement depots which were close by had already been gathering and training troops.
The battle itself ended with the Russian Army out of position. The state of exhaustion of the French forces and lack of information on the Russian Army's condition led Napoleon to remain on the battlefield with his army instead of the forced pursuit that had marked other campaigns that he had conducted in the past. The entirety of Napoleon's Imperial Guard, however, was still available to his disposition and in refusing to implement it he lost his singular chance to destroy the Russian army. The battle at Borodino was a pivotal point in the campaign, as it was the last offensive action fought by Napoleon in Russia. By withdrawing, the Russian army preserved its combat strength, eventually allowing it to force Napoleon out of the country.
Historical reports of the battle differed markedly depending on whether they originated from supporters of the French or Russian sides. Factional fighting between senior officers within each army also led to conflicting accounts and disagreements over the roles of particular individuals.241.50 €
Napoleon studying his map203.40 €
It shows Napoleon as emperor, in the costume he wore for his coronation, seated on a circular-backed throne with armrests adorned with ivory balls.
In his right hand he holds the sceptre of Charlemagne and in his left the hand of justice. On his head is a golden laurel-wreath. He also wears an ermine hood under the great collar of the Légion d'honneur, a gold-embroidered satin tunic and an ermine-lined purple velvet cloak decorated with gold bees. The coronation sword is in its scabbard and held up by a silk scarf. The subject wears white shoes embroidered in gold and resting on a cushion.
The carpet under the throne displays an imperial eagle.
Scholar Simon Abrahams has suggested that Ingres never intended the portrait to be [an accurate portrayal of Napoleon but as "the Napoleon of painting.722.70 €
The Legion of Honour was an institution that was open to all men, although initially only Frenchmen, who had either acted bravely on the battlefield or had served civil France in some exemplary way.
It was created in 1802 by Napoleon Bonaparte as part of a reward system for good service and its inductees received the Legion's small white-enamelled cross, which hung on a red-silk ribbon, as a public show of gratitude.
Often the medal was presented by Bonaparte himself, although the more usual way for a soldier to get the coveted recognition was via his senior regimental officer who would be told the number of new legionnaires to be created and then picked the men himself.
Recipients earnt great respect from their peers, as well as financial pensions.
The Legion also ran a hospital for its members. Some 48,000 men became part of the Legion, only 1200 of them civilians, but all were stipulated as being equals by Bonaparte.
By 1806 there were 13,000 surviving legionnaires, in 1807 foreign troops were made eligible and by 1814 the Legion had to cater for 25,000 living members.354.00 €
Throughout 1813 and into 1814 the pressure grew on Napoleon; not only were his enemies grinding his forces down and approaching Paris, but the British had fought out of Spain and into France, the Grande Armée's Marshalls were underperforming and Bonaparte had lost the French public's support.
Nevertheless, for the first half of 1814 Napoleon exhibited the military genius of his youth, but it was a war he couldn't win alone.
On March 30th, 1814, Paris surrendered to allied forces without a fight and, facing massive betrayal and impossible military odds,
Napoleon abdicated as Emperor of France; he was exiled to the Island of Elba.
By: Paul Delaroche (1797 - 1856)
Medium: Oil on Canvas
Location: Musee de l'Armee, Paris, France287.80 €
Grognard is French for "grumbler". It is not necessarily pejorative and is sometimes used as a compliment.
Historically it meant a soldier of the Old Guard in Napoleon's army.
The Grognards of Napoleon march to the sound of the canon! After nearly years of marching in extreme conditions, they are almost on the field of battle.354.00 €
The dining routine at the beginning of the nineteenth century consisted of only two meals a day. The first of these, the déjeuner, was resting under silver covers on a small table in the antechamber at 9:30, waiting for the Emperor to give notice of his readiness to eat. The audiences often delayed its serving an hour or more, during which time, in spite of the best efforts of the servants, it often grew cold and stale.
Napoleon’s attitude toward food was simple.
"If you want to eat well," he would tell people, "dine with the Second Consul; if you want to eat a lot, visit the Third Consul; if you want to eat quickly, dine with me."
The table was carried into the salon and the meal served under the auspices of the maître d’hôtel. The menu was simple and allowed the maître d’hôtel little chance to display his artistry.
A soup, a choice of several main courses, two side dishes, rolls, and coffee, were washed down with a bottle of chambertin.<
Napoleon was not a fussy eater, but expressed a preference for plain roast or sautéed chicken, à l'italienne or à la marengo, fried foods and pastries. He was particularly fond of pasta with parmesan cheese. His meat was always well done. He maintained no private cellar, and his wine was almost always chambertin, heavily watered. The service on which the meal was served was entirely of silver, but of a simple and unostentatious design. Gold vermeil was use only on Sundays and state occasions.
Napoleon nearly always ate his déjeuner alone, although a stream of visitors came and went. He ate hastily and rather messily, going swiftly from soup to main course to dessert and back again until he was satisfied, in the end leaving a substantial part of the meal untouched. In seven or eight minutes he was done, and ready to turn his attention to his visitors.287.80 €
Napoleon, Marie-Louise and the king of Rome
While Napoleon's mistresses had children by him, Joséphine did not produce an heir, possibly because of either the stresses of her imprisonment during the Reign of Terror or an abortion she may have had in her twenties.
Napoleon ultimately chose divorce so he could remarry in search of an heir.
In March 1810, he married Marie Louise, Archduchess of Austria, and a great niece of Marie Antoinette by proxy; thus he had married into a German royal and imperial family.
They remained married until his death, though she did not join him in exile on Elba and thereafter never saw her husband again.
The couple had one child, Napoleon Francis Joseph Charles (1811–1832), known from birth as the King of Rome.
He became Napoleon II in 1814 and reigned for only two weeks. He was awarded the title of the Duke of Reichstadt in 1818 and died of tuberculosis aged 21.241.70 €
The day of Napoleon's coronation, 11 Frimaire, An XIII (2 December, 1804)
Napoleon's 'Grand habillement' comprised: "white silk pantaloons and stockings; white slippers with gold embroidery; a white silk tunic, bordered and embroidered with gold crepine at the base; a cloak attached at the shoulders, made of purple velvet spotted with golden bees, embroidered around the edges and lined with ermine; white gold-embroidered gloves, a lace cravate; open crown of gold, formed into bay leaves formée; gold sceptre and hand of justice; sword with gold handle, encrusted with diamonds, attached to a white sash worn around the waist and decorated with gold crepine."
Josephine's 'Grand habillement' comprised: "a long-sleeved dress in silver brocade; a bodice with diamonds and lace gold-embroidered shoulder/collar piece; a velvet cloak spotted with golden bees, lined with ermine and decorated with olive-branch and oak-leaf embroidery surrounding the letter N. It is fastened at the shoulder and at the waist on the left-hand side. The crown for the ceremony is decorated with black pearls and should be attached by clips to the diadem worn with the 'Petit habillement'."
Napoleon prayed briefly and then gave the regalia he was carrying (hand of justice, sceptre, crown, necklace of the Légion d'honneur, sword) to the Grands dignitaires, during which the choir sang the Veni creator spiritus.
The imperial couple once again aproached the high altar and received the blessed ornaments, whilst the globe was given to Berthier.
During a prayer taken from the Rheims ceremonial pronounced by the pope, Napoleon handed the honours to Talleyrand and Caulaincourt, took up the crown from the altar and placed it upon his head.
Napoleon then took Josephine's crown, made as if to place it upon his own head and then crowned the empress kneeling before him.
The imperial couple thus crowned sat down to wait for the formation of the procession which was to accompany them from the low thrones to the grand throne. The procession comprised: the pope, princes, Grands dignitaires, Grands officiers, princesses, ladies in waiting, pages, heralds and bailiffs bearing the honours of Napoleon and Charlemagne.
Napoleon then sat down upon the great throne. The pope blessed him and pronounced the words from the Rheims rite: "Que Dieu vous affermisse sur ce trône..." ('May God strengthen you upon this throne...) and kissed the emperor upon the cheek.
The mass then continued with the Te Deum (Paisiello), and the Gospel (sung in both Latin and Greek); the choir then sang the Credo and Cardinal Fesch brought the gospel book to the emperor for him to kiss.
Finally the herald proclaimed: "the most glorious, the most august emperor Napoleon, emperor of the French, is crowned and enthroned emperor, Long live the Emperor!"
By this time it was 3.30pm when the cries of "Vive l'Empereur" rose inside the cathedral, echoed by canon salvoes outside marking the fact that the emperor had been crowned.
The emperor and the empress, and their cortège, returned to the archbishop's palace to change their robes and to rest after the ceremony.207.00 €
Eylau charge 1807
Having forced Marshal Ney from camp with an all-out offensive near Konigsberg, Russia's General Bennigsen suddenly found himself, and his 74,500 men, face to face with Napoleon Bonaparte and a much smaller army of fewer than 50,000.
The French emperor attacked, knowing he had reinforcements due under the commands of Marshal Davout and Ney.
A fierce snowstorm hampered his plans and his assaults foundered in the face of the blizzard and stubborn resistance.
As Davout arrived he was thrown against the Russian left and although he managed to turn it, his flanking action was stopped by the arrival of Prussian reinforcements.
Ney's arrival did little to change the balance of the struggle which is regarded as being fought in some of the worst weather of the era.
Having suffered 23,000 casualties the Russians withdrew leaving Bonaparte to claim the field.
That site, however, was covered by 22,000 dead and wounded Frenchmen.230.00 €